Newspaper Clips (1910-1919)

Mar. 21, 1911: Voice in Memorial
May 11, 1912: Congressional Cemetery, 1807 to 1825
May 18, 1912: Congressional Cemetery, 1825 to 1839
June 1, 1912: Congressional Cemetery, 1840 to 1850
Aug. 2, 1914: Local Refugees Make Whereabouts Known
Aug. 15, 1914: Draper Safe in Paris
Aug. 29, 1914: Citizens of Capital Are Reported Safe
Aug. 28, 1914: More Washington Abroad Heard From
Sept. 20, 1914: French Are Calm As Enemy Nears
Oct. 18, 1914: Old Government Reservation

The Evening Star, March 21, 1912
Voice In Memorial

Capt. Wants Citizens' Association to Have Say
Would Remove Cemetery
East Washington Association Reaffirms Its Demand
Site of New High School
Attention Directed to Advantages of Old Workhouse Grounds--
For Street Improvements

The East Washington Citizens' Association last night reaffirmed its demand that the Congressional cemetery be removed, and approved the suggestion of the Southeast Washington Citizens' Association that E street southeast between 15th and 19th streets be paved.

Various speakers pointed out that this thoroughfare is almost impassable with mud during rainy weather and a nuisance in dry weather because of dust.

The Evening Star, May 11, 1912
Old Washington
Congressional Cemetery, 1807 to 1825

By James Croggon [R66/273]

The many cities of the dead which were within the old corporation limits in the last century have, with one exception, disappeared, as also the funeral customs of the early days.

Congressional cemetery, at the southeastern extremity of the city east of 17th street, south of Potomac avenue and E street bordering on the circle, and the ground now being reclaimed along the Anacostia, is the only remaining "city of the dead" embraced in the lines of the old city limits. Like the rest of the city, it has grown in the more than a century of its existence, and in its thirty acres the number of silent tombs and graves is rapidly approaching 100,000. Among them ever condition of life is represented-senators, representatives, judicial officers, military and naval heroes, as well as many who stood high among the early families of the District.

Originally the country hereabouts was included in the farm lands of William and Abraham Young, and at the time the city was laid out the mansion house of Mrs. William Young was in the present cemetery, as also was the family graveyard. It is evident from the fact that the city authorities established a wharf at the foot of 14th street, and also that Greenleaf, Ferdinand Fairfax, Benjamin Stoddert, Col. Tobias Lear, Thomas Munroe, John Kilty and others invested there, that rapid improvement was expected, although the initial valuation of the ground was but one-half cent per foot, reduced soon after to one-eighth. There was also what was known as Wheeler's upper ferry at 14th and Water streets, which was subsequently displaced by a bridge.

In early days there was little improvement, until nearly half a century, and then it came slowly. The naval magazine, on the south part of reservation 13, and Mrs. Young's mansion house were the principal objects in the section, until the location of the Washington Asylum (poor and workhouse), in 1846, and the jail in 1870

Family Graveyards in City
There were on the site of the city when it passed into the hands of the commissioners several plantation or family graveyards, one of them near the southwest corner of Lafayette Square. Probably the first denominational graveyard, not adjoining a church, was that north of Florida avenue opposite the head of 2d street, known as St. Patrick's, which was used from about 1808 until the establishment of Mount Olivet, just before the civil war, St. Patrick's Church, at the corner of 10th and F streets, had about it quite a number of graves, some of them dating from 1794, and on G street was a vault. There was also a small graveyard at St. Mary's Chapel, better known as Barry's Chapel, at Half and N streets southwest, which existed from 1804 until after the erection of St. Peter's Church, at 2d and C streets southeast, about 1820. In 1798 the commissioners of the District set apart two squares as public graveyards, one of those at the head of 12th street west, and after the establishment of the municipality passed to its control, in 1807. This was popularly known as Holmead's, and was used from that time until after the civil war, when the bodies were disinterred and it has since become improved building sites. While used for cemetery purposes there were many prominent people buried here, among them being Lorenzo Dow, the eccentric and successful Methodist preacher, who died in this city in 1834. About the last interment made there was Lewis A. Paine, convicted as one of the conspirators in the assassination of President Lincoln. His body rested here but a few months, as shortly after its interment all the unclaimed bodies were removed to Rock Creek cemetery.

The other public burial ground was square 1026, between 13th and 14th streets, H street and Florida avenue northeast. It was under the direction of the commissioners appointed by the corporation and was a burial place from 1802 until the civil war. It was not, however, a popular place and interments were not numerous. In 1862 the bodies were removed and the title reverted to the United States, the lots being sold. From the first the place was regarded as unsuitable owing to the ground being moist and marshy and being far removed from the more settled portions of the city. It was because of this condition of the ground and location that Congressional cemetery came into existence.

Start Another Cemetery
There had been considerable settlement near the Capitol and Navy Yard about 1800. In consequence of the conditions and the necessity of maintaining in that section of the city a public burial ground Henry Ingle, who was associated with George Blagden, Griffith Coombe, S.N. Smallwood, Dr. Frederick May, Peter Miller, John T. Frost and Commodore Thomas Tingey, in 1807 started a subscription for the purpose of purchasing a square for a burial ground. That, known as square 1115, containing 197,708 feet of ground between E, G, 18th and 19th streets southeast, adjoining the southwest corner of reservation 13, was selected. On May 6, 1807, the subscribers to the fund appointed Messrs. Coombe, Blagden and Ingle trustees to plat and enclose and care for the cemetery and to provide a sexton. E. Vidler was appointed, and it was made his duty to lay off the grave sites and to superintend digging and covering the graves at $3 each. It had been decided April 4 previously, the sum of $200 having been paid for the ground, to enclose the square with a substantial post and rail fence; that the ground should be laid off in lots three by eight feet and that holders cold possess up to fifteen lots at $2 each. The deed for the property was from Mr. Munroe to Henry Ingle as agent and was dated March 25, 1808, and it recited that the conveyance was for a burial ground for all denominations of people and subject to such regulations as the vestry of Washington parish should establish; there should be set apart one-fourth of the square for the gratuitous interment of persons dying without means, and that the price of grave sites and privilege of burial should not exceed $2.

Until 1812 the affairs were in charge of the original trustees, and March 24 the committee in charge reported that the burial ground was free from debt and a resolution was adopted that Mr. Ingle present to the parish the ground, with the proceedings of the committee. Mr. Ingle did so a few days later, giving the necessary deed. The vestry at that time was composed of Rev. Andrew T. McCormick, rector; Commodore Thomas Tingey, Peter Miller, Griffith Coombe, Samuel N. Smallwood, Joseph Forest, James Young and Henry Ingle. Among those interred there prior to that time were Uriah Tracy, senator from Connecticut, who died in 1807, the first buried here, and Senator Francis Malbone of Rhode Island, who died in 1809; Representatives Ezra Darby of New Jersey, 1808; Gen. Thomas Blount of North Carolina, 1812; Elijah Brigham, Massachusetts, and Richard Stanford of North Carolina, who died in 1816, and Vice President Clinton of New York, who died April 20, 1811, and whose body was removed to New York a year ago. There were also Samuel A. Otis, secretary of the Senate, and Vice President Gerry of Massachusetts, who died in 1814, and Col. Tobias Lear, secretary to President Washington, who died in 1816.

Sites for Members of Congress
In this year the vestry appointed a committee to select 100 burial sites to donate to the government for the interment of members of Congress, and four years later the same privilege was extended to the heads of the departments and members of their families and those of members of Congress. By this time it was thought advisable to enclose the square with a brick wall, but the money received from the sale of sites did not justify it. Various measures looking to this improvement were suggested and it was finally decided to ask the aid of Congress, and the rector, Rev. Mr. Allen; Commodore Tingey and Capt. Smallwood were appointed, November 23, 1823, to ask for this aid. May 24, Congress appropriated $2,000 for that purpose. With this appropriation a bond was required, securing to the United States 400 sites for the interment of members of Congress and other government officials. The sites previously donated had been located in the northeast portion of the grounds, and December 15 the vestry set apart the additional 300 sites. The bond was duly executed and in May 1824, the wall was erected. By this time burials had become so numerous as to require the whole time of the sexton and his assistants.

Among those buried there up to 1825 were Benjamin Moore, who had established the Washington Gazette prior to 1800, and who died in 1812; Benjamin G. Orr, once mayor of Washington; a daughter of Henry Clay, a child of John C. Calhoun, Benjamin King, master smith of the Navy Yard; ex-Mayor Smallwood, Col. Frank Wharton, commander of the Marine Corps; John Crabb, Thomas Dunn, doorkeeper of the House; Gen. George Beall, Frederick Greuhm, the Prussian minister; Mme. Bresson, wife of the secretary of the French embassy; Push-ma-ta-ha, a Choctaw chief, who died in 1824; Dr. John Harrison, who for twenty years was in the United States Navy; Senators Burrill of Rhode Island 1820, Gen. W.A. Trimble of Ohio and William Pinkney of Maryland, who had a rifle corps at Bladensburg and was minister to Russia, in 1822; George Mumford of North Carolina, David Walker of Kentucky (1820), N. Hazzard of Rhode Island (1820), Jesse Slocum of North Carolina (1820), William L. Ball of Virginia (1824), representatives; Elias B. Caldwell, clerk of the Supreme Court of the United States, and Dr. Cutbush, United States Navy.

As may be supposed, the streets in that section were in a primitive condition, generally on a natural grade. At that time, there being few public conveyances, the funerals were mostly what were called walking funerals. Seldom were there any teams other than the hearse, and not infrequently so little settlement had been made that they came over meandering roads.

The old Young house, on E street between 17th and 18th streets, was then occupied by Richard Spalding, and eastward of this was a small house belonging to Richard Barry. Near the latter was the old naval magazine, near which Edward Barry resided as the keeper. Some idea of the small expenses of funerals and interments in that day may be held from the price of sites, as stated above, and of opening and filling a grave, $3 more. An undertaker's bill on file at the courthouse, reads: "To one coffin, $10; three carriages, $9; total, $19." And this the funeral of a prominent citizen!

The Evening Star, May 18, 1912
Old Washington
Congressional Cemetery, 1825 to 1839

By James Croggon [R66/273]

The Congressional cemetery up to 1825 was to all intents and purposes, in the country, for there was no settlement east of the Navy Yard, commons intervening between the plot set apart for burials and the town, although at long intervals there was some gardening and not a few squares of corn, oats, potatoes, etc. The square west, now included in the grounds, and some others south were so used, and it is related that the farmer thereof, with some of his family, repose on the ground he once cultivated-the spot on which a dance took place at the marriage of his daughter being now the family burial lot.

But little improvement had been made to the avenues and streets, but the travel to the graveyard, the naval magazine and the Naval Hospital at 10th street had worn a passable road. Over this the funeral processions passed, for, owing to the few public conveyances obtainable, more people walked than rode, and when there was a military, naval or fraternal escort bands of music played "Mary's Dream" and other marching tunes. It is needless to say that when the honors called for a salute by cannon there was ample room on the commons north.

Up to 1825 there had been but few deceased members of Congress interred there, the term "Congressional Burial Ground" was often applied and already there had been erected over them cenotaphs whose unique form attracted the attention of visitors. These are uniform in size, shape and material, after a design by B.H. Latrobe, once architect of the Capitol. They are of sandstone on a base about six feet square, on which a square block about three feet in height, surmounted by a cone-shaped top, the whole being about five feet above the ground. With but few exceptions the inscriptions on them are as follows:

"The Honorable ____, a member of Congress of the United States, from the State of ___ (or in the case of a senator, reading senator). Born ___, died ___."

Two years before, in 1823, an appropriation was made for a monument over Vice President Gerry, who died in 1814.

Nearby other burial grounds had been established-one for the members of the old Ebenezer Methodist Church on 4th street southeast, now Trinity M.E. Church, 5th and C streets, and another for colored people-and travel to and from these helped to solidify the roads. The first was on the square northwest of Congressional cemetery, known as square 1102, which was bought in 1824 of Col. Elgar, commissioner of public buildings. This contained about the same amount of ground as the Congressional, and was located between 17th, 18th, D and E streets. The sum of $150 was paid for it. It was used as burial ground until after the civil war. Over twenty years ago it was sold and converted into building lots, the bodies being removed to the Congressional ground.

These two cemeteries became well populated, the families of the Methodist persuasion using their own ground, but the Congressional was in general use. Among those buried here were Daniel Rapine, bookseller and printer on Capitol Hill, and in 1812 mayor of Washington; George Hadfield, architect; Capt. Michael Bulley of the Navy Yard section; Richard Bland Lee, judge of the Probate Court, who died in 1826; also Representative Christopher Rankin of Mississippi.

Representative James Jones of Georgia, who died in 1801, was first buried at Rock Creek cemetery as also was Gen. James Jackson of the same state, an officer of the Revolution; Maj. Gen. Jacob Brown, who died in this city in a home on the site of the present Riggs office and theater building, in February, 1828, was buried in Congressional Cemetery a few days afterward with full military honors. Dr. William Thornton, who designed the Capitol, was buried a month afterward, also Commodore Tingey, the commander of the navy yard from 1800 to his death in 1829. Gen. Philip Steward, a representative from Maryland, an officer of the War of 1812, and at the time of his death residing at 6th street and South Carolina avenue southeast, was interred here in August, 1830. Among others buried in the following year were Col. Samuel Hanson, Col. William Benning, M. Booth, long clerk at the navy yard; Henry Timms, doorkeeper of the House of Representatives; C.H. Varden and William Smith, who was at the time the sexton or superintendent of the ground. The latter had succeeded Benson McCormick, and after him came Robert Clark.

Representative Alexander Smyth of Virginia, who died in 1830; James Noble of Indiana, senator from 1816 to his death in 1831; Representative Jonathan Hunt of Vermont, Charles C. Johnson of Virginia, who was drowned near Alexandria, June 18, 1832; George E. Mitchell of Maryland and Philip Doddridge of Virginia were buried here in 1832. James Lent of New York, who died in the same year, was buried in Congressional cemetery, but his remains were removed soon afterward. Thomas D. Singleton of South Carolina, who died en route to Washington at Raleigh in 1833; T.T. Bouldin, who had succeeded John Randolph of Roanoke, who died from a stroke of paralysis in the House February 11, 1833, as he was about to reply to a censure, were buried here. Bouldin's body was removed. Littleton P. Dennis of Maryland, who died in 1834; James Blair of South Carolina who died by his own hand, March 27, 1834; Nathan Smith, senator from Connecticut, and Representative E.K. Kane of Illinois were buried there, but were afterward removed. Representative W.R. Davis of South Carolina, died in January 1835, and was interred here following funeral services in the House . It was here that the first attempt on the life a President was made. An insane painter fired a shot at Gen. Jackson, Representative Salmon Wildman of Connecticut, who died during his term in December, 1835; Richard L. Manning of South Carolina, who expired while seated with his family in his home in 1836, and Representative Jeremiah McLane of Ohio, who died during his second term, in March 1837, were all buried in Congressional Cemetery.

Up to this time practically every deceased senator or representative who died in office was buried here. This was mainly because of the inconvenience of transportation. But with the relegation of the stage coaches and sailing packets, for the swifter railroad trains and steamboats many were carried to their homes, and gradually the interments in the cemetery of government officials, including senators and representatives, practically ceased, but cenotaphs to the memory of many of them were erected.

There were interred here Representatives T.J. Carter and Nathan Cilley of Maine in 1838, as was also Isaac McKim of Maryland. Mr. Ciley, whose body was afterward removed for interment in his native state, met his death at the hands of William J. Graves, a member from Kentucky, in a duel at Bladensburg, February 24. Representative Joab Lawler was also buried in the cemetery in 1838.

There were many others prominent in official life, some of whom stood high in this country's military and naval annals, who found a final resting place there. Among them prior to 1840 were Commodore John Rodgers, then the senior officer of the navy, who died in 1838; Commodore Daniel T. Patterson, who at one time was in charge of the naval force about New Orleans and who died in 1839; Commodore C.G. Ridgeley and Maj. William Gamble, long a marine officer and resident of this city. There were also here many members of the old Washington families among them the Wattersons, Coltmans, Weightmans, Forces and Guntons.

Although other cemeteries had been established, St. John's Episcopal, Foundry Methodist among them, the Congressional Ground was the leading one of Washington. At some funerals the processions were most imposing, but there were many conducted with simplicity.

The Evening Star, June 1, 1912
Old Washington
Congressional Cemetery, 1840 to 1850

By James Croggon [R66/273]

By this time, 1840, as far as the general government was concerned, the name of the burial ground was Congressional, or Burial ground, and those names were used in the acts referring to the ground, while an act authorizing the improvement of the Avenue and E street was for "the road to the Congressional burial ground." The custom of the burial of senators, representatives and government officials was growing, notwithstanding the means of transportation to the homes of deceased members was greater than before. Congress had assisted in the rebuilding of the wall, the construction of a culvert and the repairing of damaged caused by the heavy rains, particularly that in the early part of 1839, which, it was said was never exceeded by a downpour in the history of the District. As a burial ground for the old families of the District it grew in the popular estimation, and it may be said that this with the Methodist ground opposite was used by nearly every family of the eastern part of the city other than by the majority of the Catholics forming the congregation of St. Peters, who buried in the ground of that parish on H street between 2d and 3d streets northeast.

Nearly all of the lots within the enclosure were taken up, and the question of enlarging the grounds was frequently discussed, but not for nearly twenty years was there any addition made. In this decade there were a number of representatives interred, or were subjects of the cenotaphs. These included Gen. Charles Ogle of Pennsylvania in 1841, E. Bradley of Michigan, R.W. Habersham of Georgia, J.W. Williams of Maryland and Joseph Lawrence in 1842. Barker Burnell of Massachusetts in 1843. John Bossier of Louisiana and Henry Frick of Pennsylvania in 1844, J.B. Dawson of Louisiana and J.H. Peyton of Tennessee in 1845, W. Taylor of Virginia, R.P Herrick of New York, Felix J. McConnell of Alabama in 1846, G.C. Drumgole of Virginia in 1847 and James A. Black of South Carolina and J.W. Hornbeck of Pennsylvania in 1848.

Funeral of Justice Barbour
In February 1841, Associate Justice Phillip P. Barbour of the Supreme Court of the United States was buried here, and his funeral was attended not only by his associates on the bench but by a large number of members of Congress and government officials, members of the bar, including a delegation from Virginia, and the leading citizens of Washington, for he had long resided here on E street between 6th and 7th and later on Capitol Hill, and was regarded as a Washingtonian.

The first funeral of a President took place here in April 1841, when the body of Gen. William Henry Harrison was entombed, but subsequently removed to his home at North Bend, Ohio. The funeral took place after he had served but one month as President, and all possible honor was shown him. The escort was composed of United States regular soldiers and marines, and all the uniformed volunteer companies of the District. The grand marshal was General Alexander McComb, the hero of the battle of Plattsburg, then commander-in-chief of the army. In the following June he died at his residence at the northwest corner of 17th and I streets, and he was buried at the Congressional cemetery with full military honors.

A very imposing funeral was that of some of the victims of the bursting of a gun on February 28, 1844, on the U.S.S. Princeton, Capt. Stockton. The funeral took place a few days after from the White House, and it passed over the same route to the cemetery where the bodies of Secretary of State Upshur and Capt. Beverly Kennon, who had been lifelong friends were buried together, but were subsequently removed. The Princeton was visited by President Tyler and quite a number of people in official life. A gun was fired and burst. The Secretary of State, Mr. Upshur of Virginia, Commodore Beverly Kennon of the Navy, Gov. Thomas W. Gilmer, Secretary of the Navy, who had entered on his duties about ten days before, Virgil Maxey, and Mr. Gardner of New York, and a colored man being instantly killed; and Commodore Stockton, Col. Benton and some others were injured. The President, Secretary of War William Wilkins, Postmaster General Wickliff and others were below at the time. As may be supposed there was a most imposing funeral, and as it proceeded guns were fired from the President's house, near the Capitol, and at the Navy Yard, and north of the burial grounds, the latter as the interment was made.

More Ground Secured
In 1847 the vestry petitioned for the enlargement of the grounds and pending action by Congress adopted a resolution agreeing to give the United States the privilege of bying one-fourth of the ground for the interment of members of Congress, etc. A bill was introduced authorizing the commissioner of public buildings to sell to the vestry a part of reservation 13 over 85,000 feet east of the original square (1115) at the same price per acre paid forty years before and the vestry was authorized to enclose 19th street. At the same time the vestry was given power to purchase land for the extension of the grounds not to exceed in the aggregate thirty acres. June 25th act having been passed, the vestry accepted the terms of the act.

The Secretaries of War and Navy gave an opinion as to the sale that under the terms, the vestry could acquire two and a half acres of the reservation, and the register was directed also to by the adjoining square on the south for not exceeding $500. Under this authority part of reservation 13 was acquired, as also the square on the south, and the corporation of Washington, by act of November, 1848, authorized to occupy the bed of G street between 18th and 19th streets. This additional ground was then laid out and platted.

This square was the site of the residence of Mrs. William young in the early days, a log house with outbuildings, with the family graveyard adjoining, the then southern boundary of the Congressional ground. On the division of the land with the original proprietor the twenty lots were divided between the United States and William Young's heirs, the latter taking those east. Subsequently these passed to Benjamin Stoddard, Ferdinand Fairfax and finally, into the ownership of William Clark, by whom they were sold to the vestry of Christ Church. Mr. Clark at the time resided in the old Greenleaf house on 14th street southeast.

It may be said that every condition of the white population is represented in the interments here-warriors, statesmen, professional men, merchants, mechanics, etc. But here there are also some who occupied the lower positions in life. In one case there is interred the body of a woman whose career was a short one before she was enforced to take up her residence in the workhouse. She was committed there for drunkenness when the Washington Asylum was on the square bounded by M, N, 6th and 7th streets northwest. The inmates were removed therefrom to the Washington Asylum, north of the cemetery, in 1846, and she was included. She was allowed to make her home there, with the privilege of walking out during the day, but she seldom availed herself thereof, and then went but a short distance from her home, which she occupied for nearly fifty years. Early she resolved not to be buried as other inmates in the potter's field, and in a few years she had saved money with which to buy a lot, and when the end came her body was given a Christina burial, but the lot bearing her real name, the place where Becky Smith lies, cannot be identified.

Little Settlement on Ground
There had not been much settlement near the ground other than by the Washington Asylum or poorhouse on reservation 13, north of the cemetery, in 1846, and the travel thereto by officers, with their prisoners somewhat livened up the neighborhood. Along K street were a few gardens. The house of Mr. Clark, above referred to, stood alone on 14th street and in the neighborhood of Georgia avenue, now Potomac avenue, 11th and 12th streets were some little settlements. John Neale, who afterward was the superintendent of the cemetery, lived here in the forties.

Though burials took place here from every portion of the District, the larger number was from Capitol Hill and eastward. At that time the churches in this section were Christ Episcopal, of which Rev. H. Beane was the rector; the Second Baptist, Rev. Mr. Hendrickson; St. Peter's Catholic, Rev. Mr. Van Horseigh; Ebenezer Methodist, Revs. Ege. Hanson, E.P. Phelps and others during this decade; Methodist Protestant, Rev. Mr. Matchett, and others. There were organizations of the Masons, Naval Lodge, Eastern and Union lodges of Odd Fellows, Anacostia Tribe of Red Men and organizations of the Brothers and the Sons of Temperance. And when communicants of the churches or members of the fraternal organizations and scholars of the schools died, the funerals were attend by the organizations.

In many instances, particularly of young persons, the coffin was borne on a bier from the house to the grounds, sometimes a hearse and a carriage or two for the immediate family being provided. In case of a lodge, military or fire company participation, it was accompanied by a band of music. It was customary in case of a fireman that the hose carriage was made to serve as a funeral car, and not infrequently were members of the Anacostia company at the Navy Yard and the Columbia company of Capitol Hill so buried. When the president or other prominent firemen of those days was borne to this ground, other fire companies, than this own, including those of Georgetown and Alexandria, were represented. That of Robert Coltman president of the Franklin Fire Company, a leading Mason and member of the Jackson Democratic Association, on a Sunday in 1878, was a noted one.

The Evening Star, August 2, 1914, p. 3
Local Refugees Make Whereabouts Known

Senator Oliver Returning on the Olympic -
Harry Draper in French Capital
Word comes from Paris by mail that Harry Draper of Washington is in the French capital.

The Washington Post, August 15, 1914, p. 9
Draper Safe In Paris

Head of Monroe School Wires to Friend in This City
With A Party of Teachers
Capital School Board Man Now Trying to Locate Other Washington Instructors
Believed to Have Been in Europe When War Broke Out -
Rene Samson Thought to Have Enlisted in French Army

H.W. Draper, principal of the Monroe School, who has been in Europe since early in July, and whose whereabouts had been unknown since the beginning of hostilities on the German frontier, sent a cablegram to Stephen E. Kramer, 1725 Kilbourne place, supervising principal of public schools, under date of August 10, announcing his arrival in Paris with a party of Americans, including several Washington school teachers. The cablegram, delayed in transmission, was received yesterday.

Mr. Draper was in a party of twenty Americans who sailed for Naples June 27. They planned to spend a few weeks in Italy and Switzerland, and were to have gone into Germany this month. The cablegram said the party would leave Paris Wednesday for London, and the Americans are to sail for the United States as soon as possible.

The Evening Star, August 29, 1914, p. 2
Citizens of Capital Are Reported Safe

Several Return to Homes Here,
And Word is Received from Others Abroad

Following is a list of those teachers with Washington schools from whom word has been received, and the places where they are at present:

Miss C.C. Dessez, Interlaken, ...

Those who have not been heard from are Miss C.P. Dulin

The Evening Star, August 28, 1914, p. 7
More Washingtonians Abroad Heard From Majority of District Teachers Known to be Safe

Schools to Open Promptly

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Graham of Washington and their nieces, Miss Susie Whittlesey and Miss Gertrude Amiss, who have been raveling abroad and who were in Geneva when the war began, are in London.

Word has been received in Washington of the arrival in London of William H. Steuart, chief statistician for the bureau of the census, who, with his wife, Cecil Dulin, and Mrs. E.J. Ridgway, has been touring the British Isles since July. The party will sail from Liverpool for this country on the Philadelphia.

The Evening Star, September 20, 1914, p. 8
French Are Calm As Enemy Nears

Miss Henriette Louise Dessez [R77 S105] Pays Tribute to Soldiers and Citizens of France
Most Excited People In Europe Americans

Pays Visit to Paris Before Returning and Was There When Bombs Are Dropped on City "The most excited people I saw in Europe were some Americans," declared Miss Henriette Louise Dessez of the office of the disbursing officer of the Department of Commerce, speaking yesterday of her experiences in the war zone, from which she returned recently. Miss Dessez was in Europe from the last of June until the last of August. She witnessed the Swiss and French mobilizations, traveled through the heart of France when the German army was within hailing distance of Paris, and was in the Frenc capital the day the bombs were dropped into the city from the German dirigibles. In speaking of her experiences, Miss Dessez spoke entirely of what she saw and heard in France and Switzerland. The war as seen through a woman's eyes is what she tells.

"You have always heard of the excitable French nature," she said. "Why I never saw people so calm. What impressed all of us was the absolute calmness of the soldiers. They would sit smoking and drinking in the cafes and never make the slightest demonstration. The soldiers did not stand at the bulletins at all but seemed indifferent. The most excited people in Europe were some Americans."

Dessez and party landed in Naples, June 29. They traveled through Italy, and were in Geneva on the day the Crown Prince of Austria was assassinated.

"I sat in the shade and watched the street sweepers buying extra papers on that day." said Miss Dessez. "There was great excitement throughout the city. Later, when I was at Ringzenberg, which is about three miles from Interlaken, I received the first intimations of the war. For several days there had been slight runs on the banks, and when war was officially declared this tendency became a regular run."

Saw Swiss Mobilization
Miss Dessez witnessed the mobilization of the Swiss troops to preserve the neutrality of their country and tells of the companies of Swiss yodling in unison as they passed through the town. At Bern she saw a tremendous display of soldiery.

About this time the Queen of Holland sent a special train for her people and it was on a train that went out parallel to it that Miss Dessez and her party left Geneva for Paris.

"At Geneva the Cook's office had closed. The railroad office was closed for the day. Everything was in charge of troops. The stores were closed for all the men had gone to the border, and the women were doing all the work. Cook's sold us tickets saying, 'Perhaps you can get to Paris.'

"We went to our hotel for rest and were called at 1 o'clock in the morning, we were so afraid of missing the train," continued Miss Dessez. "Soldiers were everywhere. But we had our papers and that was all that was necessary. At 5:30 o'clock, the train began to pull out of the station going very slowly. Belgrade at the frontier was the first stop. The soldiers did not collect our tickets."

Here Miss Dessez produced the indentical ticket as evidence that the soldiers, acting as trainmen, never collected tickets.

"At all our steps we were invariably switched off the main line, sometimes for hours, it seemed, to allow troop trains to go through. We arrived at Lyons at 1:30 o'clock in the afternoon Sunday. The city was filled with troops French dragoons, souaves, and the famous mountain artillery by the trainload with their guns."

Miss Dessez spoke of the calmness of the troops and their apparent indifference to the war bulletins. She said the French soldiers are not undersized as is commonly thought.

All Quite In Paris
"We arrived in Paris Monday, August 24, and found everything quiet. The women, girls and boys selling papers were making the most noise. The newspapers seemed to try to be impartial in presenting the news. The papers consisted of only one sheet, because no one wanted anything except war news. Women read them eagerly -- you would see them come out of their houses and buy the papers, read them and go in again without the slightest manifestation of excitement.

"The dropping of the bomb on the city caused no especial excitement. One bomb was aimed at one of the principal railroad stations that was a route for supplies to the frontier, it hit a house nearby and demolished it, and we heard a woman and two girls were killed.

"When we were in Switzerland we thought no one could treat Americans any better than the Swiss did, but in Paris we -- and all Americans -- received the same kindly treatment. Paris was even then on a sort of rations. There were no French rolls even -- all the bread was baked in one shape -- with a sort of groove in it.

"There were in Paris at the time we were there about 2,000 English, Irish and American volunteers going to the front. They passed down the street, not in uniform, headed by three French soldiers in uniform. The middle soldier carried a huge bouquet of American beauty roses, and the other two soldiers carried the colors.

"If you want to have a thrill you should hear the Irish sing Vive la France!" smiled Miss Dessez.

"The Louvre, a great department store of Paris, sent 2,000 men to the front. All the large stores, instead of transacting business as usual, had girls and women employed all day long sewing for the soldiers No gasoline was sold to private individuals It was all kept for the use of the government.

Girls Sew for Soldiers
"The girls sewing for the soldiers were served soup at the long tables where they worked. And somebody discovered that soldiers march better in wool socks than in ordinary cotton, so the women of Paris all set to work knitting, too.

"We saw a great truck hauled by two enormous horses and driven by a little Frenchwoman. Al our stay in Paris we never heard a bitter word spoken of the Germans I never saw such splendid self-control in my life. Despite the great worries of the hour, the French people were always gallant in the extreme, especially to the Americans, who themselves were not always courteous. The courtesy of the French under such pressure was wonderful.

"The boys of Paris were crazy to enlist. We saw one young boy volunteer his services to an officer.

"The officer said: 'Young man, you are not old enough.'

"'Please take me! Please take me! I am nearly fourteen,' the boy responded.

"All during our stay the searchlights on Eiffel tower played throughout the night, searching for possible invaders from the skies. We left Paris for Havre September 1.

"That morning! I will never forget it! We got up at 5 o'clock. With some trouble we got a cab. When we finall arrived at the station we had to stand for three hours in one spot and we didn't dare move. After awhile the crowd got so bad that the police called the soldiers. They finally got the place cleared and we managed to get to our compartment.

"Imagine leaving Paris, one of the great capitals of the world, carrying water, provisions, passports, permits to leave the city, railroad tickets, suitcases, etc., all in one hand, almost!

Whole Day Going to Havre
"As we passed from Paris we saw the outlying suburbs which had been ordered razed on the near approach of the German troops to the capital. We passed trains of soldiers, who always cheered us and showed the best good humor. They never seemed excited. It took us the whole day to get to Havre, when it usually takes but five hours.

"When we finally got aboard La Flandre of the French line, that night, they gave us something to eat! They gave us something to eat, mind you! We sailed at 5 o'clock the next morning, but were stopped out in the ocean for five hours, for some reason we never knew. We never felt sure we were really on our way for a long time.

"English war vessels were evidently picketed clear across the Atlantic, for we sighted them all the way to New York, every now and then, but they were always away off -- you could hardly see them."

Mrs. Dessez told of the happy mood of the returning Americans aboard the Flandre, which was making its first voyage from Havre to New York, she being a South American boat. The stewards were not regular stewards, but were volunteers, who, on their return to France, would immediately enlist.

"A great many of the voyagers," concluded Miss Dessez, "were in what was called the ameliorated steerage. It was also called the glorified steerage, but I should have called it glorified storage."

The Evening Star, October 18, 1914, pt. 4, p. 5
Old Government Reservation as Site for
New Eastern High School and a Great Stadium

There are various ways of reaching this land of misfortune, but The Star man rode to the end of the Pennsylvania avenue car line and then walked. Where the city cars stop close to the bridge across the freight railroad tracks and the Eastern branch there is on some of the maps of Washington a plaza or public reservation, and on some of the maps it is colored green. Surveyors can find this plaza, but pedestrians cannot know that it is there.

Coming from the northwest and joining Pennsylvania avenue at this point is a raw, unpaved and unbuilt-on way. It is Kentucky avenue. As you leave the car to walk north you face a broad space of uneven grade, weed grown and heaped with dumps of cobbles and broken bricks. A clay bank stands out here and there to show that the grade of this part of the city has been cut down. To the left of the weedy and stony area short rows of small brick houses mark the limit of the city's growth in this direction.

To the right a yellow-red clay and gravel bank extends to the northward, and along the top of this bank is a high, tight board fence, whitewashed, inclosing part of Congressional cemetery. The view to the north end of the open clay and cobble space is closed by a marble yard, where men chisel monuments for the dead, and by greenhouses and gardens gay with geraniums and dahlias grown mainly as tender offerings at graves.

The street on which you are walking and which in the country would be called an execrable road, leads north and slightly upgrade. Still on the right is the tight, whitewashed board fence.

Through an open gate in this fence you get a view of tombs and trees. The old brick wall topped with jagged broken bottles partly imbedded in cement. Over the top of this wall you see more tombs and many dark, sad cedars. Coming to the main west gate of the cemetery, you see by the legend of the street lamp that you are at 17th and G streets southeast.

You pass on, and a few steps bring you abreast of a tall marble shaft surmounted by the figure of a mourning woman. It is a monument above the common grave of a number of the victims - nearly all women - of the arsenal explosion on June 17, 1864, one of the great tragedies in Washington history. The shaft was erected by public subscription by the citizens of Washington.

Northward the street you now know is 17th stretches a yellow track across wide commons. A few small houses stand on the west side of the street. Along it, so that you can trace its course for a mile, are tall telegraph poles strung with many wires.

Arriving at the north end of the cemetery wall, another yellow clay wheel track cuts obliquely across 17th street. It is Potomac avenue. Its first name was Georgia avenue, but when that name was given to the Seventh Street road, or "the Brightwood road," the southerly way which begins at Washington barracks, skips over the northwest corner of the navy yard, cuts across the northwest corner of Congressional cemetery and converges with Massachusetts avenue at reservation No. 13 was given the name Potomac avenue, perhaps because it does not touch or lead to or from the Potomac.

When you have come to the north end of the cemetery wall you should turn to the right. The road here is a gravelly way leading east, with the cemetery's iron fence on the right, a row of large silver maples on the left and beyond an expanse of commons. Far out across the commons a few small houses show, and in the distant background are hills, prominent among these being Mount Hamilton and Mount Lincoln, blue and mist-dimmed.

When you come to the north gate of the cemetery you pass the brick lodge office topped with a little cupola, above which rises a white wooden cross and in which hangs a bell that tolls when coffins come that way. About 200 yards ahead and extending far to the left are two lines of trees, the first and lower catalpas, with their thin and light green foliage, and the second and higher line a row of poplars and maples of darker and denser foliage. There is a long, high terrace of gray-green turf, and out of the foliage you get a glimpse of many buildings - sometimes it is a bit of wall you see and sometimes a bit of roof.

The first building on the right is a big yellow structure, almost in ruins. To the left of that is a clutter of freshly painted low cottage-like frames, white with brown tin roofs. Still further to the left is a solemn dismal-looking brick building, and out on the extreme left is a red stone building in the form of a giant cross with roofed in chimneys and a factory-like smokestack, over all of which droops the American flag. It is the jail.

Following the gravel footway between the cemetery fence and the silver maples you come to the intersection of 19th and E streets. Among the trees and along the east side of 19th street are many buildings of many types and periods of architecture. E street at this point is crossed by a low red brick wall bearing signs of age and decay. A vine glowing with October reds ad purples is kindly growing over it.

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